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1- Free University, Hamadan
2- Free University, Roudhen
Abstract:   (1205 Views)
Background & Objective: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disorders of the nervous system, including its clinical syndrome based on the criteria of the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), is deficits in social communication and interaction, and deficits in behaviors, as well as limited and repetitive social interests and activities. The main manifestations of social deficits in autism include poor eye contact and a lack of emotion or social opposition, as well as deficiencies in the use of non-verbal behaviors and lack of age-related relationships that have multifaceted and pervasive effects on children. Mothers of these children need strong coping patterns because of the problems they face. On the other hand, ambiguity tolerance is one of the other variables that may be associated with mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Ambiguity can be defined as inadequate information due to location-specific features, in other words, the ambiguity is the lack of information needed to understand the situation and make the right choice with predictable consequences and it is an obstacle that makes it difficult to decide and predict the results, and in the individual creates a state of imbalance, anxiety and tension. In addition, parents with children with autism spectrum disorder usually suffer from other psychological traumas, such as social stigma, due to the type of interaction with those around them. In fact, social stigma is a psychosocial process that starts with labeling and leads to social exclusion and thus separates the individual from his or her environment for psychological or physical reasons and from the perspective of others, from a multifaceted to a single person and From a multifaceted person to a monogamous individual and considered a shameful patch in society. Psychological capital can be considered as one of the most important and essential characteristics and skills that if mothers have in the family environment, they are less vulnerable to stressful events and thus less likely to tolerate ambiguity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of psychological capital in predicting Tolerance of Ambiguity and Perceived Social Stigma in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.
Methods: This study was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population of the study consisted of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder whose children were enrolled in special schools in Tehran in the academic year of 2019-20. 180 mothers of these children were selected using available sampling method. Luthans Psychological Capital Questionnaire (2007), Mac Lain Ambiguity Tolerance Questionnaire (1993) and mak and Kwok Social stigma Questionnaire (2008) were used for data collection. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Data were analyzed by SPSS software.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant inverse relationship between psychological capital and mothers' tolerance of ambiguity (p <0.001, r = 0.46). Also, the components of self-efficacy, resilience, hope and optimism of mothers were able to predict the tolerance of ambiguity and the component of self-efficacy (p <0.001, B = 0.567) was more predictive of ambiguity tolerance than other components. Also, there was a significant inverse relationship between psychological capital and social stigma of mothers (p <0.001, r = 0.051). Also, the components of self-efficacy, resilience, hope and optimism of mothers were able to predict social stigma, and the component of hope (p <0.001, B = 0.621) was more predictive of social stigma than other components.
Conclusion: The components of psychological capital play an essential role in predicting the ambiguity tolerance and social stigma of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.
 
     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2020/03/22 | Accepted: 2020/06/11

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