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1- Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University
Abstract:   (1700 Views)
Background & Objectives: Numerous students are affected by test anxiety, which involves a significant perception of distress, i.e., the consequence of reducing the ability to cope with some situations, like exams. Expanding the scope of exams requires conducting interventions. Accordingly, a test anxiety reduction program is teaching studying skills. The present study aimed to determine the effects of study skills training (SQ3R and SQ4R) on reducing test anxiety in students.
Methods: This was a quasi–experimental study with a pretest–posttest and a control group design. The statistical population of this research included the second–grade secondary school students of Kermanshah City, Iran, in the 2017–2018 academic year. Using a multi–stage random sampling method, a randomly chosen area was selected among the three districts of Kermanshah Province. Subsequently, two high schools were selected from the same area. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS; Sarason, 1980) was applied to collect the required data. This questionnaire has 37 questions, answered with yes/no options. The subject must complete the test within 10 to 15 minutes. The scoring is conducted based on the number of items with correct answers, and the final score indicates the test anxiety level. To score the TAS, a 1–point score is dedicated to the items 1–3 15–26–27–29–33. Furthermore, a score must be provided to each answer for the other questions. After collecting the scores, the test anxiety score is obtainedd. The test has standardized scores; the score is higher than the test anxiety, and the individual is ranked according to the score obtained in one of the following categories: mild anxiety (scores≤12), moderate anxiety (scores 13–20), and severe anxiety (scores ≥21). In this test, the scores ≥15 are worth paying attention. The obtainable scores range from 0 to 37. Abolqasemi et al. have translated this scale into Persian and validated it on the Iranian population. The test–retest reliability of this test was >80% at intervals of several weeks; it was performed on all 294 students. After completing the questionnaires, they were selected and evaluated. The students who scored the highest in test anxiety were selected from 45 people. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. The learning skills training protocol was adapted from the United States University of Technology's Learning Package, and the study skills protocol and the cognitive and metacognitive strategies were adopted and used. The educational program was performed with permission from the Kermanshah education center, and the informed consent was received from the study subjects. The inclusion criteria were the lack of any disease and the age range of 14–17 years. Furthermore, the protocols were provided to the students of experimental groups by 45–min sessions of lectures and practical training. Moreover, the control group received no training. At the end of the course, the post–test was performed in each of the three groups. Then, the data were extracted and analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at a significant level of 0.05 in SPSS.
Results: The relevant results revealed that training study skills reduced test anxiety in students (SQ4R, p<0.001 & SQ3R, p=0.004), and there was no significant difference between the two methods (SQ4R and SQ3R) in this regard.
Conclusion: The study skills (SQ4R and SQ3R) provision was effective in reducing the test anxiety in the students. The study had some limitations, including focusing on adolescent boys of the second grade of high school; thus, generalizing the findings to females and other age groups encounter restrictions. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers and school counselors use these skills to reduce test anxiety in students.
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Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2019/02/20 | Accepted: 2019/05/14