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1- Zahedan University of Medical Sciences
Abstract:   (1094 Views)
Background and Objectives:
Stuttering is a complicate speech disorder that compared to other speech and language disorders, there is relatively higher prevalence. Factors such as neurological damage in the brain, processing problems such as memory and memory, and … cause stuttering. Studies have shown that deficits of working memory can be effective in the development of stuttering. False memory is a memory distortion that can have a negative impact on the performance of memory. One of the most widely used methods in the field of false memory researches is the list learning paradigm that another name is DRM paradigm. The DRM paradigm was originally developed in a study by Deese (1959) and expanded in a study by Roediger and McDermott. Participants are given a list of words that have semantic dependence (such as resting, dozing, snoring, snoring, pillows) that all of these words are associated with a single covered word in the list, known as critical lure( for example, sleep). The participants are asked immediately or after a certain period of time to recall and recognize. When the participants recall that they may remember a large number of words in the list correctly, ignoring the missing words on the list, but they often recall the missing word on the list, which is called "DRM Effect".
The false memory in patients who have a neurological disorder, elderly people, natural and ADHA children. It is impossible to assume that the effects of false memory differ in different instances of various patients with different cognitive functions. Also, considering that the existence of false memory can be effective in the aggravation of avoidance behavior and disfluency, as well as weakness in the working memory can cause memory errors among people who stutter; on the other hand, considering the lack of studies of false memory in Iran, the aim of this study is comparison false memory in stutter and normal children.
 Methods:
This is a cross - sectional study was performed on 30 children was 6-12 years old, stutter and normal. In this study, the DRM pattern was used to study false memory. This test is consisting of 24 word lists and each list contains 12 words. After the presentation of each list, the recall test was performed and then the next list was presented. The DRM test scores are evaluated based on the number of false, error and distorted false memory responses. Eventually recognition test was conducted. This test contains 36 words, 12 words presented, 12 lure words, 12 unrelated words. The resulting score is the same as the recognition scores of the subjects. To analyze the data, SPSS software was used. In all calculations p <0.05 was considered as a significant level.
Results:
Independent T-test was used to analyze the data of participants. There is a significant difference between the false memory of stutter and normal children (p<0/0001), but the results showed that there is not a significant difference between the recognition word recognition tests in the two groups who are stuttering and normal.
Discussion:
Children often display more memory errors and are more vulnerable to false memory, maybe that's why they haven't grown long enough to form a precise memory for the real events of their lives. As shown in some studies, working memory in children who stutter has a weaker function than natural children and that probably leads to more memory problems in the group. The process of forming, storing, and retrieving memory, like many other cognitive processes, can be influenced by different confounding factors.
Lure words are frequently activated by the list of words offered.
Working memory weakness may lead to memory errors when reminding and recognizing information. However, mental imaging increases the amount of overlap between the characteristics of real and unreal events and increases the field of false memory formation. Therefore, in stutterers, fears of stuttering in different situations and words can create a false image in the mind and create false memory, so the person begins to avoid.
Conclusion:
According to the data, distortions of memory in children with PWS are more than normal children. So memory as working memory exercises can help to treat them.
     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Rehabilitation
Received: 2019/03/3 | Accepted: 2019/09/3

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