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Background and aim: Mathematics is one of the most important knowledge that has always been of human interest. Despite the importance of mathematical lessons on academic achievement, some children encounter disabilities in this lesson. Children with math learning disabilities are children who are motivated to learn math skills such as number recognition, math and spatial perception and problem solving. These people need strategies to pave the way for using their abilities. Given that learning problems in mathematics become apparent before the formal education of the school is revealed, early identification and meaningful interventions in early childhood are important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of non-verbal intelligence components to the prediction of math disability in children aged 3 to 6 years.
Methods: The research method was descriptive correlational research. The statistical population of this study included all pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years old in boys and girls 1, 2, and 3 in Tehran. The research sample was selected based on multistage cluster sampling. The sample size was 180 people. To select the sample group, 60 males and females (30 males and 30 males) were selected in each age group of 3, 4 and 5 years old. The research instruments were Stanford-Binet's intelligence test and Jordan's sense of judgment. Validity and reliability of these two tests have been investigated and confirmed in numerous studies. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate which non-verbal component can play an effective role in predicting children's mathematical disability. Also, before presenting the results of regression, first, the main assumptions of multiple regression analysis were examined.
Results: The assumption of normalization was tested with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and according to the obtained values and the reported significant level, the distribution of data is normal and parametric statistical tests can be used for data analysis. Another regression assumption is the lack of a coherent effect between independent variables. Indicators of tolerance of variance and inflation of variance check these assumptions. In the present study, all numbers indicate that there is no strong coherent effect between predictor variables. Another assumption is the regression of the independence of errors, which should be supposed to rule out the correlation between errors. To check this assumption, Durban Watson statistics were used. In this study, this statistic is equal to 1.71. In this research, the coefficient of determination of R2 was 0.49, meaning that non-verbal components have 49% ability to predict the number of senses and 51% of the remainder are related to other factors. The results of separate analysis of variables showed a significant non-verbal non-verbal reasoning component with children's sense of number (p <0.05). Also non-verbal non-verbal memory has a significant relationship with the number of children (p <0.001). The positivity of the coefficients of these factors actually indicates that, as they increase, the sense of number increases and, therefore, the mathematical disability decreases.
Conclusion: According to the results of the research, the variables of non-verbal fluid reasoning, nonverbal quantitative reasoning and non-verbal active memory are contributing to the screening of mathematical disability in pre-primary ages (3 to 6 years). It seems that many of the computational problems of children take their problems from basic-level matching skills to one-to-one count and the concept of collection. Many children can not rely on memory skills to combine numbers and build new numbers. Reformal displacement problems are usually related to issues of perceived spatial value, as the problems of dividing numbers are related to the lack of understanding of the multiplication concept. The dependence and relationship of a skill with another skill should always be considered by the child with learning disabilities. Based on the results of the research, it is concluded that educational managers are more interested in the role of non-verbal components in student learning, because with better understanding of these factors, managers can design useful and useful educational programs to improve students' academic performance. Also, educating teachers to direct them to non-verbal non-verbal teaching methods can be considered by educators in place of traditional methods. The present study was carried out on pre-primary ages and also in Tehran only, so the generalization of the results should be followed with caution.

Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2019/04/29 | Accepted: 2019/06/13

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