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1- kharazmi University
2- Islamic Azad University of Tabriz
Abstract:   (1717 Views)
Objective and Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by three main characteristics, attention deficit, hyperactivity and Impulsivity. For many years, it has been believed that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early-onset disorder that has a limited impact on the adult's mental status, but the symptoms and disturbances defined by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often persist until adulthood. . In attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, early deficiencies in executive functions cause ongoing problems in self-control and behavior management, and may lead to adverse experiences in childhood. Negative beliefs and perceptions emerge from the experiences of failure in childhood, and a vicious circle between them is formed, and these dysfunctional beliefs can enhance the likelihood of early maladaptive schemas in adulthood. Schemas are sustainable and deep cognitive structures that interact with the individual's genetic talents and environmental factors, including the relationships of individuals with the parents and important individuals, and the result is the formation of a set of beliefs about themselves and others through which conditions, Evaluated and interpreted. Abuse of children is to do any kind of child abuse or neglect that results in significant physical or psychological harm or serious harm to the child, including four types of physical, sexual, emotional and negligent child abuse is. Overall, due to the high prevalence of ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the wide-ranging negative implications of this disorder for adults in different areas. Identifying the factors that can affect the symptoms of this disorder offers appropriate remedies for the treatment of this disorder. In addition, in our country, the study of the problems and disorders in adults with hyperactivity disorder has not received enough research attention. Therefore, due to the lack of research in this field, the necessity of such research is felt. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas and childhood maltreatment in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
 Methods: This research is a descriptive-analytic study of or causal-comparative type.The statistical population of the study is referring to the counseling and psychotherapy center of Tabriz in the second half of 1397. Given the comparative nature of the research, the need for a specific sample and the difficulty in finding and satisfying them for participation in the research, the sample size is at least 30. The sampling method was based on the goal. The experimental group included 30 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who referred to the Tabriz Counseling and Psychotherapy Center. After a definitive diagnosis of ADHD, adolescent attention was selected by the psychiatrist. In addition, 30 normal and non-disturbed people who were matched according to gender, age, education with the group of people with ADHD. Entry criteria include diagnosis of hyperactivity disorder, lack of attention by a psychiatrist, age range of 20 to 40 years, satisfaction with participation in the research. Exit criteria include significant psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases (according to patient records and questions from individuals) and the use of certain drugs, addiction to any drug and stimulant In this study, all ethical considerations, including voluntary participation in the study, as well as the confidentiality of information about the participants are observed. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, frequency and frequency, and inferential statistics such as multivariate analysis of variance were used with SPSS version 23 software.
 Results: The results showed that impaired self-regulation and performance(P<0.001), Disconnection and Rejection(P<0.001), impaired limits(P<0.001), and other modalities in adults with ADHD were significantly higher than normal adults. However, there is no significant difference between the mean scores of vigilance and inhibition among adults with ADHD and normal adults. The results also showed that physical abuse (P=0.003), emotional abuse (P<0.001) and negligence(P=0.007) were significantly higher in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than in normal adults. However, there is no significant difference between mean scores of sexual abuse among adults with ADHD and normal adults.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than those without the disorder, childhood abuse, physical, emotional and neglect, have higher levels of early maladaptive schemas. Therefore, considering the importance of childhood and parenting behavior with children with ADHD, it is recommended that parents of these children be trained in the establishment of proper and effective relationships and parenting practices. Also, in the treatment of hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should be addressed to early childhood maladaptive schemas and interventions in this area.
 
     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2019/05/17 | Accepted: 2019/07/22

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