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Tajeddini K, Eskandari H, Borjali A, Farrokhi N, Delavar A. The Phenomenological Investigation of Perceived Psychological Consequences of Earthquake in Male Survivors. MEJDS. 2020; 10 :81-81
URL: http://jdisabilstud.org/article-1-1987-en.html
1- Allameh Tabataba’i University
Abstract:   (1433 Views)
Background & Objectives: Earthquakes are among the natural disasters with various effects on the victims. Earthquakes are life–threatening, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events. This phenomena could cause widespread destruction and expose thousands of individuals to sudden mourning, injury, property loss, homelessness, and displacement. Iran, is among the earthquake–prone countries and has the highest number of victims in this regard. The present study aimed to explore the lived experience of male survivors of the Kermanshah earthquake to understand the psychological consequences of earthquakes on their lives.
Methods: This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach and a 7–step Colaizzi method. The study population were male survivors of Kermanshah earthquake in 2017. Moreover, purposive sampling technique was conducted in this research. Based on the collected data and the interviews, the sampling process continued until data saturation. In this study, after conducting 12 interviews, the data were saturated; considering one more case, the sample size of 13 men was computed. The study participants’ minimum and maximum age were 25 and 50 years, respectively. The average age of the study participants was 36.92) about 37) and they had different professions. The study was conducted two years after the occurrence of earthquake, and the researcher visited Kermanshah 5 times, once for observation only, and 4 times for an interview in the convenient environments. The study inclusion criteria included having the experience of an earthquake at the time of Kermanshah earthquake, and the desire to participate in the research. Additionally, the exclusion criterion of the research was the lack of fluency in Persian for performing the interview. In–depth interviews were used to collect the required data. Furthermore, each interview lasted between 50 and 60 minutes. Initially, the research participants' demographic information was collected. All interviews were recorded in one session using voice recording, then transcribed. During and after collecting the data, the researcher took notes on ideas for coding and classifying the data, and used note–taking in data collection. In this study, several pre–designed and related questions related to the research topic were used to guide the interview and data collection. The interview was guided by the following questions: 1. How did you feel after the earthquake and how did you react? and 2– What issues occupied your mind after the earthquake?. The interviews were conducted in a quiet area at the Zahab Bridge. At the beginning, the purpose and subject of the research were explained to the study participants. Besides, the study participants were assured that ethical principles, such as confidentiality and trustworthiness, anonymity and the confidentiality of information were observed. The study subjects’ informed consent forms were then obtained and the study participants provided oral permission to record the interviews.
Results: The themes covered in this study were the sources of stress, tangible physiological responses, emotional responses, destructive thoughts, sleep problems, and cognitive problems; each of which included sub–topics. The subject of psychological stress sources included direct earthquake experience, post–earthquake experience, the death of spouse, and the death of a family member, being buried under the rubble, injury or illness, the loss of property and assets, as well as unemployment. The themes of the tangible physiological response included headache, dizziness, suffocation, and the loss of appetite. The themes of emotional reactions included sorrow, fear, anger, guilt, shame, and worthlessness. Destructive thoughts included suicidal ideation, recurring sad memories, and annoying thoughts about the future. Sleep problems included nocturnal insomnia, nightmares, and inability to fall asleep deeply. Finally, cognitive problems included memory problems and difficulty in making decisions.
Conclusion: In this study, the lived experience of male survivors of the Kermanshah earthquake was examined in more depth; the obtained results emphasized the important role of reactions in coping with the stressors caused by earthquakes and their associated effects. It is vital to consider these reactions in planning to manage such conditions.
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Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2020/04/20 | Accepted: 2020/05/30

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