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Background & Objective: Hearing impairment is a multidimensional disorder that causes personal and social problems. Children and adolescents with hearing impairment are more likely to be at risk than behavioral problems In defining children's behavioral problems, those behaviors are regarded as abnormalities that, while disproportionate to age, severe, chronic, or persistent, and their range include externalizing behavioral problems such as hyper-activity, opposition, and aggression, as well as internalized behavioral problems such as aloofness, isolation And depression. Internalized problems are intrinsically internal in nature and are manifested in the form of withdrawal from social interactions, inhibition, anxiety, and depression, and their core is mood or emotional disturbance and externalizing problems are undesirable compromise patterns that conflict with other people and their expectations. Regarding the high prevalence of behavioral problems in children with hearing impairment, recognizing the behavioral characteristics, abilities and problems that people with hearing impairment face, is very important.  Difficulties in expressive language and verbal processing are significantly associated with problems in executive functions. And it seems that this issue has serious psychological and social consequences in children with hearing impairment and causes behavioral problems in these individuals. On the other hand, some researchers have tried to justify relatively modest behavioral problems in children with hearing impairment with a defect in the growth of the theory of mind in these individuals. In order to study the effective factors causing behavioral problems in children with hearing impairment, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive functions and mind theory with behavioral problems in children with hearing impairment.
Methods: The research method was descriptive correlational. The research community consisted of all elementary students in the deaf city of Tehran who were studying in deaf schools during the academic year of 1997-1996. According to Tabachnick and Fidel's formula, the sample size is estimated to be 84. This formula is used to determine the minimum volume required for multiple regression studies. In this formula, N is the minimum sample size required and m is the number of predictor variables (N> 50 + 8m). In this study, 120 cluster randomized cluster sampling was used to increase the external credibility and test power. In this way, six schools were selected randomly from among elementary schools of the deaf city of Tehran. Then, five classes were selected randomly from selected schools. Finally, four students with hearing impairment were selected from the selected classes in each school. The criterion for entering the study was: normal IQ according to the case, absence of any physical disabilities, movement, blindness, mental health and autism. The exclusion criteria were the lack of satisfaction with the participation in the research. It is worth noting that ethical issues such as the privacy of subjects and trusteeship were respected in the research. Data collection was done by Stringenman's Theory of mind Test (1999), Coolidge Neurology Questionnaire (2002), and Child Behavioral inventory (ACHENBACH, qnd RESCORLA, 2001). The results were analyzed using SPSS software, using Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis in step-by-step method at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: The results of this study showed that there is a significant reverse relationship between planning and internalized behavioral problems (r = -0.22, r = -0.24) and externalized behavioral problems (P = 0.001, r = -0.33) Had There was a significant reverse relationship between inhibition and internalized behavioral problems (r = -0.22, P = 0.002) and externalized behavioral problems (P = 0.001; r = -0.31). However, there was no significant relationship between the organization and internalized behavioral problems (r = 0.14, P= 0.112) and externalized behavioral problems (P = 0.731 , r = 0.731). There was a significant reverse relationship between Theory of Mind and behavioral problems of externalization (r = -0.42, p = 0.001) and internalization (r = -0.28, p = 0.001). The theory of mind was the strongest predictor of internalized behavioral problems (P = 0.022, P = 0.022) and externalized behavioral problems (P = 0.001, P = 0.001) in children with hearing impairment.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, Executive functions and mind theory play a major role in behavioral problems of students with hearing impairment and the need for designing and implementing educational and therapeutic programs is essential in order to cultivate these factors.
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2018/12/30 | Accepted: 2019/01/22

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