Volume 10 -                   MEJDS (2020) 10: 170 | Back to browse issues page

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Baradari E, Kasir S, Amani K, Senobar A. Comparing Psychological Capitals between the Healthy Elderly and Those with Diabetes and Hypertension. MEJDS. 2020; 10 :170-170
URL: http://jdisabilstud.org/article-1-1538-en.html
1- Department of Counseling, Allameh Tabataba'i University
2- Department of Counseling, AllamehTabataba'i University
3- Department of Counseling, Tehran University
4- Department of Educational Psychology, Lorestan University
Abstract:   (1473 Views)
Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension play a significant role in the mental health of the elderly. The present study aimed to compare the psychological capital between the elderly with diabetes and hypertension and their healthy counterparts.
Methods: This was a descriptive and comparative study. The population of this study included all the elderly living in the villages of Shavar section in Shoush City, Iran (N=1500). Of this population, 400 elderly with diabetes and hypertension whose diagnosis were approved by the specialist physician of the health center as well healthy elderly were selected; for the recruitment of samples in this study, a simple random sampling method was used. From 1100 healthy elderly and 400 elderly patients, 95 healthy and patient elderlies (33 diabetics, 25 with hypertension, & 27 healthy individuals) were selected as the study samples and according to Krejsi–Morgan sampling table. To collect the necessary information, in specific days and hours coordinated with the village health centers (10 villages), the psychological capital questionnaire was distributed among the elderly with diabetes and hypertension and the healthy subjects in almost identical situations. There was no time limit for the collection of questionnaires, they were collected and categorized at specific hours with the presence of a researcher in the health centers, the villages, or at the study subjects’ home. The data collection tool was Luthanz's Psychological Capital Inventory (2007). This questionnaire was designed to measure the psychological capital of individuals. It consists of 4 subscales of hope, optimism, resilience, and self–efficacy; each subscale consists of 6 items responded on a 6–point Likert–Type scale (completely disagree to completely agree). To analyze the obtained data, we used descriptive statistical methods (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics [Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for testing the normal distribution of data, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and one–way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)] in SPSS. The inclusion criteria of the present study included being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and having physical health, being aged >50 years, the lack of psychological disorders, non–use of psychiatric medications, and completing the questionnaire. Additionally, the exclusion criterion of the study was providing incomplete questionnaires. Following the selection of samples at a meeting, the study participants were informed of the research goal, and they were assured that the analysis of the questionnaires would only be general in line with the research objectives and that the principle of confidentiality would have been respected. Furthermore, all necessary permitions for the implementation of this research have been obtained and any research action has been reported to the Shawoor Health Center.
Results: Obtained data suggested a significant difference in self–efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism between the studied elderly with diabetes and hypertension and the healthy ones (p<0.001). In other words, healthy elderly enjoyed higher levels of self–efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism, compared to the elderly with diabetes and hypertension.
Conclusion: According to the current study findings, the elderly with diabetes and hypertension were more prone to be exposed to psychological damages, induced by due to these conditions. In other words, the elderly with diabetes and hypertension have lower levels of self–efficacy, hope, and resilience, and optimism, compared to their healthy counterparts.
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Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Rehabilitation
Received: 2019/05/3 | Accepted: 2019/06/22

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