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1- Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch
2- Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch
3- Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh Branch
Abstract:   (465 Views)
Background and Aim: In general, in the classification of learning disability, we can mention three areas of math disorder, writing disorder and reading disorder. In elementary school students, reading disorder or dyslexia can be the most common type of disorder. Considering the numerous experimental results in the field of unpleasant consequences of reading learning disorder such as multiple communication problems, illness and mental disorders, lack of scientific perspective and many other consequences, the study of this type of disorder and its effective factors is of special importance. It should be noted that despite conducting various studies on learning disabilities in other countries and societies, however, in Iran, in terms of the prevalence of different types of learning disabilities (math, writing and reading) and the causes affecting that information and There are no exact statistics and in other words, we can say that our country is still at the beginning of the road in this regard. Therefore, in order to identify and treat students with learning disabilities and special support for these children, identifying the factors affecting reading disorders is an undeniable necessity and requires further research in this area. Therefore, the main topic of the present study was to investigate the effect of executive function and perception on the Reading disorder score of elementary school students with a disorder (from mild to severe level).

Methods: In this descriptive-survey study, 224 students of the 2nd education district of Tehran, who had low, moderate and high reading disorders according to Salimi's dyslexia checklist (2016), were selected by available sampling method and using
The executive function scales of Gioia et al.'s BRIEF (2000) and Future Perception Questionnaire (2017) were examined, of which 208 questionnaires were returned as acceptable. Gerard et al.'s (2000) executive function behavior rating questionnaire was used to evaluate executive functions. This scale has two forms for parents and teachers and has 86 questions whose items are graded by parents or teachers from 1 to 3 respectively. To measure perception, the future perception questionnaire (2017) was used with the components of spatial awareness, visual perception, auditory perception and sensory integration. Finally, in order to evaluate the disability of learning to read, the 27-item dyslexia checklist of Selimi Timuri (2006) was used. This checklist is designed to identify and diagnose students at risk of disabilities and reading difficulties.  The obtained data were tested using spss software version 22, as well as simple linear regression tests, multiple linear regression tests, and multinomial logistic regression with a significance level of α=0.05.

Results: The research findings showed that executive performance (p < 0.001; β = 0.733) and perception (p < 0.001; β = -0.730) had a significant effect on children's reading disorder score. Also, the results of multiple linear regression showed that the dimension of emotional control (from the components of executive performance) with values ​​(p < 0.001; β = 0.482) and the dimensions of sensory integration and auditory perception respectively with values ​​(p = 0.009; β = -0.201) and (p = 0.017; β = -0.176), were able to explain 60.9 percent of reading learning disorder scores. In other words, among all the components of the research, the dimensions of emotional control, sensory integration, and auditory perception had the greatest impact on the reading disorder score. In addition, the results of multinomial logistic regression showed that in the low reading disorder group compared to the moderate reading disorder, auditory perception (OR=2.303, p=0.004), sensory integration (p=0.028, OR=2.023) OR) and organization (p = 0.039, OR = 0.749) variables; in the high reading disorder group compared to the moderate reading disorder, the auditory perception variable (p = 0.042, OR = 7.393) and the low reading disorder group compared to the high reading disorder group, the attention transfer variable (0.048) = p, OR= 0.327); had a significant effect on the odds of having reading disorder.

Conclusion: Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that executive performance and perception are the factors affecting reading learning disorder. Therefore, in order to improve children's reading performance, the level of executive performance and perception in these children should be developed.
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology

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