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1- Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University
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Abstract

Background and purpose: Values ​​are the core structures of personality and are considered as standards to guide thinking and action. Values ​​guide people towards certain positions in the field of social issues and place people in favor of an ideology against others. When a person thinks about his personal values, he actually thinks about what is important, good and worthy for him. according to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational content, Schwartz conceptualized ten types of personal values. Personal values ​​with an internal orientation (centered on the person) belong to the two dimensions of self-enhancement (universalism and benevolence) and openness to changes (benevolence, self-direction and Stimulation), and personal values ​​with an external orientation (centered on the community) belong to the two dimensions of conversation (stimulation, tradition and security) and self-transcendance (achievement and power). These values ​​act as guiding principles in a person's life and they are considered as the building blocks of good life and well-being. Psychosocial researchers have long been interested in finding ways to assess human values. Schwartz and his colleagues have developed various tools to achieve this ambitious goal. One of the most important of these tools is of the short form of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire. The aim of the present study was to investigate Psychometric properties of the short form of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in Iranian students.

Research method: This research was methodological. The statistical population included all students of Farhangian University in Tehran in the academic year 2021-2022. Considering that the minimum sample size for factor analysis is 6 to 10 times the number of instrument items. In the present study, after removing 35 distorted questionnaires, 450 people were included in the study using available sampling method. The study participants answered the short form of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21). The content validity of the questionnaire was checked using two indices, CVI and CVR, with the opinion of ten experts (3 people are PhD in psychometrics, 5 are clinical psychologists and 2 are PhD students in clinical psychology). With Lawshe table, the optimal value for content validity ratio index (CVR) was 0.62. The value of 0.79 was considered as an acceptable value for content validity index (CVI). The factorial structure the short form of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire was determined using confirmatory factor analysis with the help of Lisrel version 8.8 software, and the reliability of the tool was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient with the help of SPSS version 24 software. a significance level of a=0.05 was considered.

Findings: Content validity was checked with the opinion of ten experts and the range of content validity ratio (CVR) for each statement was between 0.80 and 1. Comparing the obtained values ​​with the Lawshe table for each phrase, the content validity ratio (CVR) was 0.62, indicating the importance of the presence of phrases in the research tool. The results of the content validity index (CVI) of each phrase were more than 0.79, which showed the simplicity, specificity and appropriate clarity of each phrase. The factorial structure of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the students of Farhangian University showed that, in addition to ten personal values, this tool has four general factors of openness to changes (benevolence, self-direction and Stimulation), self-enhancement (universalism and benevolence), conversation (stimulation, tradition and security), self-transcendance (achievement and power) according to the value perspective Schwartz's personal values ​​are measured. fit indices df/x2=2/90; MRSEA=0.065; CFI=0.92 and GFI=0.90 were optimally obtained. Cronbach's alpha values ​​were calculated between self-transcendence=0.700 and self-enhancement =0.777.

Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that the short form of the short form of Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (2001) in Farhangian University students has good validity and reliability, and it can be used as a tool to check people's personal values. The findings of this study showed that Schwartz's visual values questionnaire in Iranian students has good validity and reliability and can be used as a tool in examining one's personal values.

     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology

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